The town of Duchcov is about 8km from Teplice. The first mentions of Duchcov date to the year 1240 and come from the cartulary of the Osek Monastery, known as the Codex Damascus. In the 14th century Duchcov was a liege town surrounded by walls and with three gates. There was an original small Romanesque Church of St George in the town and a Dominican convent, which is mentioned during the plague epidemic in 1380 in the manuscript known as the Duchcov Necrology.
The Lobkowicz family came to Duchcov in the 16th century. The town then passed into the holdings of the Wallenstein family, allegedly through the marriage of a widow of the last of the Lobkowiczs from the Duchcov branch. Johann Friedrich Wallenstein, a Baroque intellectual and later the Archbishop of Prague, deserves special attention, as he endowed the town of Duchcov with several privileges and cultivated relations with Europe’s spiritual elite of the time. At that time there were at least eight craftsman’s guilds operating in the town, as well as two religious brotherhoods and a marksman’s association.
In the year 1785, the Enlightenment scholar Giacomo Casanova came to the Castle of Dux. Duchcov, where he worked as a librarian, was the last stop in his adventurous life. He wrote his memoirs here, which soon caused a sensation and also became part of Europe’s literary history.